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Невербална комуникация по време на пренаталния процес


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  • Автор: д-р Дейвид Чембърлейн (превод: Орлин Баев)

    <i>http://www.birthpsychology.com/lifebefore/comm.html

    д-р Дейвид Чембърлейн, 1995

    Превел: Орлин Баев<br ><br >Дата на първоначално въвеждане: 10.02.2008 г., 23:42 ч.</i>

Бебетата в утробата, които имат нормален слух и нормална стимулираща среда, комуникират без помощта на думи, срички и фрази. Както знаем, езиковите способности започват да се появяват година или две след раждането. Плодът комуникира чрез движения, които са израз на неговите нужди, интереси и чувства и са или самоволни или като реакция на дразнители. Този модел на комуникация протича не само в утробата, но и след раждането и в продължение на целия жизнен цикъл, като представлява наистина универсален невербален език.

В зависимост от развитието на сетивата си по време на напредването на предродовия процес, плодът извършва непрекъснат взаимообмен със средата около него. Езикът на тялото на бебето служи като реакция на разнообразни сетива: отговор на резките вкусови и обонятелни промени – като израз на удоволствие или неудоволствие. Реакция на силна светлина, шум, налягане или болка чрез жестове на самозащита или бягство. Реакция на различни стилове музика или чрез диво ритане или чрез успокояване и забавяне на движенията като израз на задоволство и почивка. Би трябвало да се вслушваме в езика на тялото на детето!

Ултразвуковите наблюдения на поведението в утробата разкриват, че плодът е способен на силни емоции. Наблюденията правени межди 16-тата и 20-тата седмица от бременността по време на процедурата по амниосинтеза (amniocentesis) ни разкриха преживяванията на плода, включващи страхови реакции с екстремни вариации в сърдечния ритъм и отдръпване от нормалното поведение за часове и дори дни. При повишаване употребата на амниосинтеза, бременните и лекуващите ги лекари са станали свидетели на агресивни действия към инжектиращата игла, като бебетата са я атакували интензивно и се опитвали всячески да я отместят и спрат интервенцията! Наблюденията с ултразвук над близнаци ни разкриват вроден език на тялото, който включва ръкостискане, целувки, игра, взаимно ритане и удряне. Способността за предродова комуникация е новост за психологията и медицината.

Способността за сигнализиране на стрес чрез плач е твърде позната способност на младенците. Плачът може да бъде неудържим. На бебетата не им трябват уроци как да плачат, макар че възрастните имат нужда от уроци как да интерпретират плача на децата си. Техническите изследвания показват, че плачът съдържа много информация за болестта, вредната диета на майката и генетичните дефекти. Бебетата са чувствителни към плача на други бебета и правят разлика между животински, човешки или електронно възпроизведен плач. Най-силно реагират на плача на връстниците си – младенците от същата възраст като тях. Емоционалното вълнение, което провокира плача, вече присъства в утробата и плачът може да бъде чут ако в областта на ларинкса на плода достигне въздух. Вътрешноматочният плач се нарича „vagitus uterinus” (буквално: “утробен плач”) и е документиран както в литературата на древната, така и на съвременната медицина. Съществуват описани повече от сто случаи.

Езикът на тялото на малкия човек е твърде красноречив по време на раждането: стиснати юмручета, изразяващи гняв или релаксирани жестове или дори усмивка, показващи удоволствие. Новородените ясно изразяват как се чувстват чрез кривенията на лицето, извивките на тялото си, маханията на ръчичките и крачетата си, като се изчервяват ядосано като раци, побледняват или посиняват опасно или гукат и бълбукат доволно. Тези очевидни способности за комуникация на неродените и новородени деца са следствие от впечатляващите им възприятийни способности.

Бебетата започват да учат майчиния си език още от утробата. Изследванията с акустична спектрография показват, че първият плач на 900г. недоносено бебе вече съдържа интонацията, ритмите и други речеви специфики, които съвпадат с тези на майката. Това доказва, че в 26-тата седмица от бременността бебето вече е придобило някои от спецификите на майчиния си език.

Скорошни изследвания разкриват, че плодът е способен на запаметяване на пасаж от история или рима, докато е в утробата – убедителна демонстрация на ранните способности за памет и учене. След раждането си, бебетата показват явно по-силен интерес към разговорите на неговия майчин език, отколкото на други непознати за него езици. Езиковите изследванията демонстрират, че бебетата на една година възприемат най-малките звукови единици на езика – фонемите – дори по-добре от възрастните. Установени е много високо ниво на четене по устните при бебетата, когато те бързо разпознават кой от записите които слушат съответства на образа на говорещо лице. Също толкова бързо те избират подходящ емоционално запис на говорещото лице пред тях. Като допълнение на способностите за четене по устните, бебетата, включително и недоносените, притежават толкова добри способности за лицево възприятие, че могат моментално да имитират широко отворена уста, изплезен език, мимическите експресии за щастие, тъга или учудване – наистина удивителни способности за комуникация.

Новородените пристигат на този свят вече снабдени с универсалния човешки език на знаците, който започват да изразяват още от десетата седмица на бременността чрез целенасочените си движения. Тези движения са в отговор на цял спектър от развиващата се сетивност за: тактилност, топлина, вкус, обоняние, слух, зрение. Движенията на невербалната комуникация на плода са в отговор и на емоционалното и когнитивно състояние на майката, предавано директно по биохимичен път чрез пъпната връв. Комуникативният репертоар на неродените и новородени деца включва вербална и невербална експресия, цвят на тялото, емоционални реакции, плач, отдръпване, жестове с ръце, поредица от лицеизражения и имитация. Така, всяко дете е в състояние да комуникира с родителите си, да води диалог, да изпраща и получава съобщения – далеч преди развитието на уменията на вербалния език.

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Discovering What’s My Line? ELLE Discovering What’s My Line?January 4 6:34 PMby ELLE 0 Comments There's nothing like starting the New Year by parting with your life's accumulation of books and moving into an apartment half the size of your last one. What is even more painful than packing away all your Plath, Parker, and Potter, however, is that wretched stretch of days between canceling your cable at your former address and carving out cheap karen millen outlet a time, midday, to wait at the new one for some man with an attitude to come and set it back up. Not only do you miss first run episodes of Intervention, The Biggest Loser: Couples, Law & Order: SVU, Jersey Shore, and The Soup, coach factory online but there's the entire karen millen outlet weekend of programming, too, that includes but isn't limited to MSNBC documentary Saturday and bizarre TLC medical special Sunday. All that gone unseen, while you sit and stare at a dark, lifeless flatscreen that takes up 2/3 of one of your four walls. Welcome to what might be my entire January. This weekend, after having exhausted all of my bookmarked websites of their new content, and it being far too cold not to sit inside all day, I serendipitously found the perfect distraction. While trolling YouTube for clips of Lauren Bacall (no one wore clothes better than she did back in the day), I found footage of the first of her three appearances on the CBS game show, What's My Line? And from there, I was hooked. Between 1950 and 1967, WML appeared on Sunday nights at 10:30 EST and attracted as its "mystery celebrity challengers" the caliber of celebrity you don't see anywhere today, not even on Leno, Letterman, and Saturday Night Live combined. And because of the nature of the appearancethe celebrity must disguise their voice to answer questions from a blindfolded panel trying to Coach Outlet Online guess coach factory online his/her identityyou see a playful, ridiculous side of actors and performers like Barbra Streisand, Bette Davis, Charlton Heston, Elizabeth Taylor, and Alfred Hitchcock you might not otherwise seeor even know existed. There are hours' worth of these 4-6 minute clips on YouTube, and if you're like I will be tonight, trying not to wonder to whom Jeff Von Vonderen is saying the words, "These people love you like crazy and they're are afraid they're losing you...", I encourage you to flip open your laptop, step back in time, and watch some of the most iconic figures in Hollywood history get giggly like a Snooki. Johanna Cox, Junior Editor Host of WML's first 18 seasons, John Daly, along with three coach factory online of its most well-known, panelists: Dorothy Killgaren, (guest host, film producer David Susskind), Arlene Francis and Bennett Cerf Photo: Getty Images Lauren Bacall in 1953: Elizabeth Taylor in 1954: Paul Newman and Joanne Woodward in 1959: Tags:

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Down to a Fine Art ELLE Down to a Fine ArtOctober 28 6:31 PMby Genevieve Bahrenburg 0 Comments Chris Vasell's Neue Paranoia. Courtesy of Team Galley. LA based artist herve leger dress Chris Vasell's new show, entitled the The Estate of Chris Vasell, is opening at the Team herve leger dresses Gallery tonight (through October 28th). Vasell's brand of abstraction combines aspects of op art, figuration, and color field painting with surrealist imagery. Working in the vein of Robert Rauschenberg and Helen Frankenthaler for this exhibition, Vasell "utilized detritus herve leger dress scavenged from life, which is then frequently appliquéd to corrugated cardboard sheets," according to Team.  "His paintings and collages are structured with a keen cerebral control that exists alongside a constant flirtation with chaos, repeatedly blending slapstick humor with a serious encyclopedic knowledge of his medium's historical lineage." If you're not exactly sure what that means visually, swing by Team (located at 83 Grand Street, cross streets Wooster and Greene, on the ground floor) http://herve-outlet.com/ to make your own judgments. In the artis's Neue Paraonia (left) we see a dolphin, some matchsticks, "N"s that look like they were borrowed from a pair of New Balances, colored dots (which Vasell explains are foam tops with paint on top of them as well as metal disks) and a nautical porthole. The artist's unique ability to combine radically disparate elements into a cohesive collage stirs the senses and makes you want to understand what exactly it is that Vasell is trying to say.  If you turn your head to the left and view the painting horizontally, you can herve leger dress make out the word "neue" spelled out from left to right and see that the number http://herveldresses.com of colored dots corresponds to the number of letters in the word paranoia. Vasell's had several solo shows across U.S. and abroad, and has participated in exhibitions at several museums, including Chicago's Museum of Contemporary Art and the 2006 Whitney Biennial.  So if you can't make it to the exhibition, be sure to keep him on your radar he's definitely one to watch. Tags: art Chris Vasell abstraction Team Gallery

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Don’t Know Much About (ELLE’s) History… ELLE Don’t Know Much About (ELLE’s) History…October 6 6:02 PMby ELLE 0 Comments Almost immediately after marrying French media magnate Pierre Lazareff in 1938, Russian born Hélène Gordon decided against pursuing a career in that which she was educated (ethnography) and practically trained (two years studying Dogon tribal culture in Soudan). Instead, she embraced her new life as half of France's most celebrated journalistic power couple and focused on what she loved: fashion. On the advent of WWII, the couple transplanted their young daughter (hers from a previous marriage) and lived for several years in Manhattan to herve leger dress avoid backlash against Pierre's politically controversial newspaper, Paris Soir. Hélène, who was fluent in several languages, including English, quickly found work in New York, writing for established fashion monthlies Harper's Bazaar and Vogue, before settling in as head writer and editor of The New York Times' now defunct Women's page. In 1944, only weeks after Paris was liberated, the Lazareffs returned to France and resumed their lives, both socially and professionally. Pierre reassumed herve leger sale the top post at Paris Soir, turning it into one of the most widely circulated daily papers in Europe, and Hélène, having realized fashion journalism was her true calling, took what herve leger outlet she'd learned abroad and decided to start her own fashion magazine. On October 1, 1945, "on paper so coarse and yellow that it reminded her of French bread," Hélène Gordon Lazareff did just that, introducing to the world the first issue of herve leger outlet ELLE. On left: Christian Dior sizes up ELLE founder Hélène Gordon Lazareff in 1957; Top right: ELLE man, Orson Welles, thumbs through his favorite fashion mag in 1954; Bottom right: Mrs. Lazareff flanked by herve leger friends and her husband, fellow journalist, Pierre, at a party in Paris in 1953. Photos: Getty ImagesResarch: TIME archives, Graphic Design History (Heller and Ballance; Allworth Press, 2001), Enfants Terribles (Weiner; Johns Hopkins University Press, 2001) Follow ELLE on Twitter. Tags:

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New Year's Eve Party Playlist DJ Mia Moretti Interview ELLE DJ coach outlet Mia Moretti Shares Her New Year's Eve Party PlaylistDecember 28 3:00 PMby Tommye Fitzpatrick 0 CommentsPhotos: David Uzzardi, AmazonWhat's a New Year's Eve party without good music? Mia Moretti, who has performed at parties for the likes of Jimmy Choo, Topshop, Prabal Gurung, and Barneys New coachoutlet2bags.com York, put together her ultimate New Year's Eve playlist for ELLE.com. "I think the trick is to always mix some classics with your new favorites," she advised. "As a DJ, you can never Coachbagswholesales.com forget the importance of nostalgia and the art of storytelling! Oh, and have fun, it's just music!" Her top songs to celebrate the start of the new year, below."Sweet Nothing" by Calvin Harris featuring Florence Welch "I would let Florence sing the dictionary to me. I love her voice so much, so of course with the brilliant electro hitmaker Calvin Harris behind her, this is a New Year's Eve home run." "Some Things Never Seem To F*cking Work" by Solange Knowles"The second single off of Solange's new EP, True, is such a great 'I hate you 2012, I'm ready for 2013' teenage angst sing-along hitjust try not to sing along.""Clique" by Kanye West featuring Jay-Z and Big Sean"It's not a holiday if you aren't surrounded by coach bags wholesale the ones you love, so get your clique together. Even if it's someone coach factory online store you just met, after you sing this song together you'll be fast friends." "Anything Could Happen" by Ellie Goulding"Well, it is http://coachoutlet2bags.com/ New Year's Eve, after all""Someone Just Like You" (Posso Remix) by Beni "These two lovely DJs from L.A. have been releasing some up-tempo disco remixes that are impossible not to dance to." "Happiness" (The Magician Remix) by Sam Sparro"Another great remix and one of my favorite new tracks of the year. Everything The Magician touches really is magic.""Take Care of Business" (Pilooski Remix) by Nina Simone"Because while you are all out having fun when the clock strikes midnight, I'll be 'takin' care of business' at the Tribeca Grand Downtown Ball Drop."  "Diamonds" by Rihanna"Oh honey, you are a diamond, tonight's your night to shine!" 

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Material Intervention ELLE Material InterventionJuly uk-karendresses.co.uk 23 5:28 PMby ELLE 0 Comments I am a self-professed pack rat; a genetic predisposed condition passed down from my paternal grandmother.  Since I started at ELLE 3 years ago, my closet has undergone an excessive surge of inventory and barely any export.  Diagnosed with probably symptoms that have paralyzed me from rationalizing my material acquisitions in relation to my apartment's parsimonious storage space-"that Fendi-logo skirt reminds me of cheap oakley sunglasses my first trip to Milan," "I will be a size 2 by the end of the summer but should keep those size 8 acid wash jeans incase I don't," and "I cant live with the regret of not having that magenta sequin mini-dress in the chance it's trendy next season."  Anyone who can identify with the aforementioned unwarranted excuses, there is hope -Shop Your Closet by Melanie Charlton Fascitelli. I recently discovered the how-to organization guide at an ELLE event held in honor of the author at the Ports 1961 boutique in Los Angeles.  The young Hollywood-heavy crowd mingled and shopped the store's stylish merchandise armed with the essentials- copy karen millen dresses karen millen dresses online of Shop Your Closet, $100.00 gift card and, of course, a current issue of ELLE.  The gorgeous Lake Bell and Nicky Hilton were amongst the Ports 1961-clad ladies in attendance http://sunglassesfactory.net/ and proved to be true ELLE girls, modeling their own distinctive cheap oakley sunglasses personal style.  Ms. Bell brought a bold vintage spin to her Hitchcock heroine silhouette with candy apple red patent heels, color block belt and python clutch while the younger Hilton sister brought a bad girl element to her soft tiered white crocheted dress with punk-anointed studded sandals and envelope clutch.  Actress Lake Bell Nicky Hilton While the idea of transforming my Halloween USA meets Century 21 closet into an OCD color and style coordinated retail sanctuary would help simplify my chaotic existence, I am in stage one of a dangerous addiction to retail and foresee it escalating.  They say the first step to recovery is admitting you have a problem, and while the Shop Your Closet ethos is my rehab all of the enticing looks from Ports 1961 this season is sure to cause me to fall off the wagon.    Tags:

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